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Chumash water bottle

CAMPBELL, P., "Chumash water bottle", Bulletin of Primitive Technology, vol. 48, Utah, Society of Primitive Technology, pp. 87-92, Fall 2014.

A Personal Experience in Communicating History: Tales From the River Trent

Sophia Collins (UK)

Saturday 1 September dawns gloriously, and is unseasonably sunny. Our fingers are crossed that this is the Indian Summer we'd been praying for all August since we intend to do a lot of walking in the next three weeks...

How did they make prehistoric canoes (NL)?

The prehistoric canoes that have been found in the Netherlands are dug-out canoes. They were made of hollowed-out trees. In te forest a suitable tree was selected and probably on the spot shortened, debarked and hollowed out...

Did people bathe in the early Middle Ages (NL)?

Roman baths were still used and maintained in some places at the beginning of the early Middle ages. In monasteries there were sometimes baths too...

How did Biskupin settlement seize to exist (PL)?

Because of the rising water table of Lake Biskupin the inhabitants abandoned the settlement.

Did people have soap in the Early Middle Ages (NL)?

The Romans didn’t use soap: they cleaned themselves with olive oil and some sand to remove dead skin cells. Soap supposedly is a Gallic or Germanic invention...

How and why is a reconstruction of Āraiši lake fortress being built (LV)?

Āraiši lake fortress was attacked and destroyed in the late 10th century, and was never rebuilt. When the foundations settled and the water level in the lake rose, the building remains and artefacts ended up underwater, and in these anaerobic conditions they were preserved up to the present day...

How did they put the wooden piles into the loch (UK)?

They sharpened the bottom end of the pile to a point using axes. They tied a cross piece of timber and attached it near the top. A person on either side of this cross piece could then twist back and forth to drive the pile into the bed of the loch.

Why is Āraiši settlement called a lake fortress (LV)?

It was established in the course of archaeological excavation (1965–1969; 1975–1979) that Āraiši lake fortress had been built on an island in the lake for defensive purposes and had been fortified in a similar manner to...

Why was Āraiši built on an island in the lake (LV)?

Āraiši lake fortress was built and inhabited in the Viking Age (9th–10th cent. AD) by the Latgallians, one of the ancient Baltic groups. In the middle and second half of the...


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