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Where did medieval people go to the toilet (NL)?

In the Middle Ages, every house needed to have a secrete (toilet). Ordinary folk usually had it in their back yard. Underneath, a hole was dug which regularly needed to be emptied. The contents was used by farmers as fertiliser...

How did they warm the houses in the early Middle Ages (NL)?

With wood and turf. A hearth can be found in virtually all excavated houses. Often this is a round spot with a lot of charcoal and orange burned clay. The hearths sometimes were constructed on small platforms...

Did they have beds in the Early Middle Ages (NL)?

No beds are known from the Netherlands from the early Middle ages. In Oseberg and Gokstad (Norway) two beds were found. They look surprisingly modern: they even have a slatted bed base...

Why was Āraiši built on an island in the lake (LV)?

Āraiši lake fortress was built and inhabited in the Viking Age (9th–10th cent. AD) by the Latgallians, one of the ancient Baltic groups. In the middle and second half of the...

How was Āraiši lake fortress built (LV)?

Āraiši lake fortress was built on a low, frequently inundated islet in the lake, connected to the shore by means of an 80-metre-long natural bank of glacial till. In the 9th century, when the lake fortress was built, the water level in Lake Āraiši was...

What did the dwellings in the lake fortress look like (LV)?

The 9th century lake fortress consisted of 16 houses, with a habitable area of 10–30 m2. The houses were built of horizontal logs, with gently-sloping roofs, made of spruce or birch bark, as well as turf, and served at the same time as the ceiling...

How many people lived in a lake fortress (LV)?

Every dwelling house with its auxiliary structures was an independent economic unit. Each house would have been the home of one nuclear family, consisting of parents, children and grandparents...

How did the interior of the dwellings in the lake fortress look like (LV)?

There were sleeping places and benches along the walls. Sometimes, in one corner of the room, the in- built structure from horizontal logs was made, where house hold items of bigger size and tools were stored...

How and why is a reconstruction of Āraiši lake fortress being built (LV)?

Āraiši lake fortress was attacked and destroyed in the late 10th century, and was never rebuilt. When the foundations settled and the water level in the lake rose, the building remains and artefacts ended up underwater, and in these anaerobic conditions they were preserved up to the present day...

How did they put the wooden piles into the loch (UK)?

They sharpened the bottom end of the pile to a point using axes. They tied a cross piece of timber and attached it near the top. A person on either side of this cross piece could then twist back and forth to drive the pile into the bed of the loch.

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